Forklift hydraulic parts must work properly in a hydraulic system for a forklift to lift it's load properly.This system enables the truck to hoist, reach, tilt and sideshift. The main parts of a forklift's hydraulic system are a tank where hydraulic fluid is stored; a pump; a high-pressure line; and a control valve with levers attached. In an I-C forklift, the pump is connected directly to the engine so it runs constantly the entire time that the truck is in operation. However, in an electric forklift, a microswitch in the control lever turns the pump on whenever the lever is switched on.
The pump draws the fluid out of the tank into the high-pressure line which pushes it into the control valve. The hydraulic fluid then flows from the main circuit via the levers, which distribute the fluid to the different cylinders controlling the truck's hoist, reach, tilt and sideshift functions. Any excess hydraulic fluid that makes it to the control valve is returned to the tank by way of a low-pressure hose. This excess fluid passes through a filter in the circuit between the control valve and the tank, or inside the tank itself.
Because of the intricate details, the hydraulic system is extremely sensitive to even the smallest particles of dirt or debris. As such, the hydraulic filter is an extremely important part of the overall system. The seals for the control valve, lift cylinder and tilt cylinder prevent leaks that decrease the fluid level and also help to prevent contamination of the operating system. Low fluid levels or contaminants in the system can wear out pumps and negatively affect a truck's overall performance. Damage to a hose or line can also cause low hydraulic fluid. When the hydraulic fluid level is too low, there is the potential for load drift problems or uncontrolled mast movement, both very disruptive issues.
Choosing the right hydraulic forklift parts and regular maintenance of these parts will make sure that your truck can hoist, reach, tilt, and sideshift with ease.